3.22 Web 2.0 Glossary
strategy and design consulting company that helps companies build products
that improve the users’ experiences. Founder Jesse James Garrett
coined the term Ajax and is a major proponent of the technology.
Adobe Integrated Runtime (AIR)—Allows
offline access to web applications (i.e., when an Internet connection
is not available).
search advertising program for web publishers. This is a fundamental
and popular form of monetization, particularly for Web 2.0 startup companies.
search advertising program for advertisers.
company (see Commission Junction and LinkShare) that connects web publishers
with cost-per-action affiliate programs. (See affiliate program.)
program that allows publishers to post text and image ads on their sites.
If a user clicks through to the affiliate site and takes a specified
action (e.g., makes a purchase, fills out a registration form, etc.)
the publisher is paid a portion of the sale or a flat fee.
agile software development—A
process that focuses on developing small pieces and upgrades to a program
quickly and continuously throughout the life cycle of
online retailer and web services provider. The Amazon Associates affiliate
program allows web publishers to monetize their sites by recommending
open source software foundation, responsible for the Apache Web Server
and many other open source products.
API (Application Programming Interface)—An
interface called by a program. Web services are often referred to as
APIs and are accessible over the Internet.
leading computer company, responsible for Macintosh computers, the iPod,
iTunes and the iPhone.
architecture of participation—A
design that encourages user interaction, where the community contributes
content and/or participates in the design and development process. Creating
websites that encourage participation is a key part of Web 2.0.
pieces of a web page to be refreshed separately, while the user continues
to work on the page. Ajax improves the user’s experience by making
webtop applications approach the responsiveness of desktop applications.
for web feeds; similar to RSS.
result of the abundant amounts of information being produced and people’s
limited free time. More content is available than users can sort through
on their own.
person’s digital representation in a 3D world such as Second Life.
SaaS project management and collaboration tool from 37Signals.
video search engine with over 12 million hours of video indexed (which
makes the content searchable).
website consisting of posts in reverse chronological order. For common
blog components see: blogroll, permalink, reader comment, and trackback.
search engine devoted to the blogosphere. Some of the top blog search
engines include Technorati, Feedster, IceRocket and Google Blog Search.
popular blogging platform now owned by Google.
author of a blog.
act of writing a blog.
collection of blogs with multiple editors. Popular blog networks include
Corante, 9rules, Gawker and Weblogs, Inc.
blogging community. In mid 2007 there were over 90 million blogs.
list of links to a blogger’s favorite blogs.
Internet, often offered by cable companies and satellite companies.
act of working together to promote valuable content and remove spam
or offensive content.
idea that collaboration and competition among large groups results in
grand and intelligent ideas.
popular affiliate network with member advertisers including eBay, Best
Buy, Hewlett-Packard and hundreds more.
(writing, videos, etc.) that is created by Internet users.
that is targeted to web page content. Because these ads are relevant
to the nearby content, contextual ads often enhance the value of that
content and generate higher clickthrough rates.
blog network whose blogs are written by leading commentators in their
field. Categories include law, policy, business, management, media,
the Internet, technology and science.
that is billed by user action (e.g., purchasing a product or filling
out a form).
that is billed by user click. The publisher receives revenue each time
the user clicks an ad on the publisher’s site, regardless of whether
the user makes a subsequent purchase.
that is billed per thousand impressions, regardless of whether the user
clicks the ad or makes a subsequent purchase.
popular classifieds and social networking website that fits the Web
2.0 lightweight business model. The company has few employees and all
of the content is user generated. Craigslist was originally free; however,
it is now transitioning to charging for certain services such as real-estate
and job postings. A portion of the company is owned by eBay.
website working on converting Wikipedia articles into RDF triples. This
is a step toward the Semantic Web.
content-creation, corporate training and Web 2.0 business development
organization. Deitel has a rapidly growing content network (currently
about 80 Resource Centers) specializing in topic categories, including
Web 2.0, Internet business, programming languages, software development
social bookmarking site.
social media site where users submit news stories and the community
votes on the stories. The most popular stories are featured on the site’s
Digital Rights Management (DRM)—Technology
used to prevent piracy and misuse of digital media. Several high-profile
executives, including Apple CEO Steve Jobs, have recently started an
future of search; the idea of introducing users to valuable content
they might not have looked for otherwise. For example, social bookmarking
sites and Deitel Resource Centers suggest valuable resources.
social networking site designed for use on mobile devices, owned by
Google. Allows users to locate friends and “crushes” who
are nearby so they can meet up.
open source web application framework based on Microsoft’s .NET
framework. DotNetNuke allows users to build dynamic websites quickly
and easily. For more information, visit the DotNetNuke Resource Center
Internet advertising company acquired by Google in 2007 for $3.1 billion.
Their advertising exchange connects advertisers with online publishers.
the term “Web 2.0.”
leading online auction site.
Markup Language (XML)—A
widely supported open (i.e., nonproprietary) technology for electronic
data exchange and storage, which is fundamental to Web 2.0 and the Semantic
Web. It can be used to create other markup languages to describe data
in a structured manner.
social networking site. Though it is now open to the public, Facebook
was originally designed for and is especially popular with college students.
company that connects bloggers with advertisers. Founded by John Battelle,
the chair for the annual Web 2.0 Summit Conference, and the author ofThe Search: How Google and Its Rivals Rewrote the
Rules of Business and Transformed Our Culture.
RSS feeds for blogs, feed monetization, podcast tracking and more. Acquired
source web browser (based on the Netscape Navigator browser introduced
in 1994) developed by the Mozilla Foundation. For more information,
visit the Firefox Resource Center (http://www.deitel.com/ResourceCenters/Software/Firefox/tabid/1213/Default
Rich Internet Application (RIA) framework developed by Adobe. For more
information, visit the Flex Resource Center (http://www.deitel.com/ResourceCenters/Programming/AdobeFlex/tabid/1682/Default.aspx).
photo-sharing website often credited as one of the best examples of
classification based on tagging content. Users tag the web content (web
pages, photos, etc.), making it easier to find the content online. Folksonomies
are formed on sites such as Flickr, Technorati and del.icio.us. Users
can search tags for content that is identified in different (and sometimes
more meaningful) ways than by traditional search engines.
social networking site; an early leader in the category of social networking.
In 2006, Friendster was awarded a patent for a method and tool called
the “Web of Friends,” which gathers descriptive and relationship
information for users in the network. The combined data is used to show
all of the social relationships connecting two users in the social network.
It also allows users to find people connected to their friends, their
friends' friends, etc.
Garrett, Jesse James—Coined
the term “Ajax” and founded Adaptive Path.
blog network that includes Gawker.com
(New York City gossip), Gizmodo.com
(technology and gadgets) and more.
Web 2.0 search and online advertising company founded by Larry Page
and Sergey Brin when they were Ph.D. students at Stanford University.
It is the most widely used search engine, commanding almost 50% market
share. In addition to its regular search engine, Google offers specialty
search engines for images, news, videos, blogs and more. Google provides
web services that allow you to build Google Maps and other Google services
into your applications.
open source web browser extension that enables developers to provide
offline usage of their web applications. The program can easily be resynchronized
when an Internet connection becomes available.
mapping web service, hugely popular in mashups.
Internet competitive intelligence service provider. Hitwise collects
and sells usage information from over one million websites in numerous
industries. Clients use the information to find market share, keyword,
web traffic flow and demographic data.
mashup of Google Maps and Craigslist apartment and real-estate listings;
often credited as being the first mashup.
blog search engine.
computer hardware company that creates the processors that power most
of the world’s computers.
that plays between page loads.
that is marked by double-underlined keywords in the content of a web
page. When a reader hovers the mouse over a double-underlined word,
a text ad pops up. By clicking on the ad, the reader is taken to the
advertiser’s page. Companies providing in-text contextual advertising
include Vibrant Media, Kontera, Text Link Ads and Tribal Fusion.
mobile phone, released June 2007. The iPhone is designed to run a full
version of the Internet.
portable media player.
online music and video store; designed to sync with the iPod.
John Battelle’s Searchblog—A
blog in which John Battelle discusses search, media, technology, and
more. (See Federated Media.)
text-based data interchange format used to represent data structures
and objects, and transmit them over a network. JSON is most often used
Internet TV company using semantic technologies to provide high-quality
video with time shifting (recording for later viewing) and social networking
capabilities. Joost allows advertisers to target their markets precisely.
Advertisers can use demographic information such as location, gender,
age, and more, to serve appropriate ads and to get a better return on
investment from their advertising campaigns.
popular social music website that uses the wisdom of crowds to recommend
music to its users. The Last.fm Audioscrobbler music engine automatically
sends the name of every song the user plays to the server. It then uses
the information to recommend songs and artists, connect users with similar
tastes and more.
desktop-like environment for running web applications built on the OpenLaszlo
monetization model for many sites that send traffic to another site
and typically collect a fee when the visitor fills out an inquiry form
so a salesperson can follow through and potentially convert the lead
into a sale.
lightweight business model—A
plan that allows a company to start quickly and with little capital
investment. This is facilitated by powerful yet economical computers,
the wide availability of inexpensive broadband Internet, robust open
source software offerings, and well-developed, easy-to-employ monetization
models—especially advertising and affiliate programs.
other sites to link to your site, but without specifically asking for
links. Providing quality content is considered the best form of link
various methods to encourage other sites to link to your site. It is
widely believed that increasing the number of inbound links to your
site will encourage search engines to send you more traffic.
social networking site for business professionals. It can be used to
stay in touch with professional contacts or make new contacts in your
popular affiliate network with over 600 member companies (including
American Express, Office Depot and Walmart).
website where you can create your own blog.
by Chris Anderson in an article in the October 2004 WIRED
Refers to the continuous sales of numerous items with low sales volume
that can add up to a significant part of a company’s total sales.
Amazon and Netflix are classic Long Tail companies.
combination of two or more existing web services, RSS feeds or other
sources of data to create a new application. For example, http://www.housingmaps.com
combines real estate listings from Craigslist with Google Maps so you
can view the listings on a map. For a list of popular mashups, see http://www.programmableweb.com/popular.
“artificial artificial intelligence,” which uses people
in a web service to perform tasks that are difficult for computers to
perform, such as identifying the subject of a picture and transcribing
dictation recordings. Users can post a HIT (Human Intelligence Task).
Anyone interested in completing the task can submit a response. If the
response is approved by the person who posted the HIT, the responder
is paid a predetermined fee for each task completed. The key is that
the human task is interwoven with the execution of the web service,
creating applications that mix computing power with human intelligence
source software written originally for Wikipedia and now used by many
value of a network is proportional to the square of the number of its
users. Metcalfe’s Law was authored by Robert Metcalfe, the creator
of Ethernet. (See also network effects.)
common standard for identifying information in a way that can be understood
by computers. Some current microformats include adr (for address information),
hresume (for resumes and CVs), and xfolk (for collections of bookmarks).
for more information.
such as cell phones and PDAs. An increasing number now offer web access,
which has opened up new web application possibilities. (See also iPhone.)
from mobile devices.
and censoring inappropriate content and comments in blog or forum postings.
The potential need for moderation is a drawback to allowing user-generated
money through your website (e.g., using contextual advertising, affiliate
programs, e-commerce and other revenue-generating models).
open source version of Microsoft’s Silverlight for Linux operating
blogging software package from the company Six Apart that is installed
on the blogger’s server.
and maintains open source software including the Mozilla Firefox web
browser and the Mozilla Thunderbird e-mail client.
most popular social networking site, and the most popular site on the
increased value of a network as its number of users grows. For example,
as the number of people with Internet connections grows worldwide, the
value and benefit to all users of the Internet grows (individuals can
communicate with more people, companies can reach more customers, etc.).
(See Metcalfe’s Law.)
way of organizing and relating things. Ontologies are a key technology
in the Semantic Web.
that is available for anyone to use and modify with few or no restrictions.
Users can modify source code to meet their unique needs, or collaborate
with others to enhance the software. Many Web 2.0 companies use open
source software to power their sites, and offer open source products
company that introduced and promoted the term Web 2.0 (coined by company
executive Dale Dougherty). O’Reilly Media publishes technology
books and websites, and hosts several conferences, including the Web
2.0 Summit, Web 2.0 Expo, OSCON (the Open Source Convention),
Emerging Technology, Emerging Telephony, Where 2.0, RailsConf, MySQL,
Ubuntu Live and more. See the O’Reilly Radar (http://radar.oreilly.com/)
to keep up-to-date on emerging technology trends.
company’s hiring of independent contractors or other companies
to perform various tasks. Outsourcing is often cheaper for the company.
that pays based on user actions, such as making a purchase, filling
out a registration form, etc. (See also cost-per-action.)
URL that links to a specific blog entry instead of the blog’s
homepage. Links stay relevant even after the blog entry moves off the
home page and into the archive.
idea of continually releasing new features even if they aren’t
“final.” This allows software companies to constantly fix
bugs and improve the software by getting continuous feedback from real
Pew Internet & American Life Project—A
non-profit Internet research company. The project is funded by the Pew
Charitable Trusts, which has also initiated other research and cultural
open source content-management system and web publishing tool based
on PHP and MySQL.
media file designed for syndicated distribution online. It can be played
on a personal computer or mobile media player (such as an iPod or MP3
Policy Aware Web Project—A
site devoted to developing policies regarding Internet data. This is
an attempt to deal with Semantic Web security concerns.
content that is available for a fee (e.g., e-books, articles, etc.).
It is a way for publishers to monetize their sites. Sites offering premium
content typically offer free content as well.
blog about blogging. It teaches bloggers how to monetize their sites
with Google AdSense and other programs.
website with extensive directories of web services APIs and mashups.
RDF (Resource Description Framework)—An
XML-based language used to describe content attributes such as the page
title, author, etc.
of two pieces of information and a linking fact. They are used to help
computers understand data, a vital part of the Semantic Web.
left by readers on a blog.
that collect data using collaborative filtering to determine users'
tastes and interests as they search the Internet. For example, Amazon’s
“customers who bought this item also bought...”
popular version of the Linux operating system. The company is a leader
in the open source movement.
existing applications and/or content into something new; this is fundamental
to Web 2.0.
used by businesses like eBay and Amazon to encourage trust. For example,
after each eBay transaction, the buyer and the seller can each leave
positive or negative comments about the other party.
REST (Representational State Transfer)—A
simple alternative to SOAP for implementing web services. Many developers
prefer REST-based web services to SOAP-based web services for their
simplicity, their ability to be cached and more. Amazon offers some
REST-based web services. (See also SOAP.)
Rich Internet Applications (RIAs)—Web
applications that have the responsiveness and the rich GUI normally
associated with desktop applications. Related technologies for building
RIAs include Ajax, Dojo, Silverlight, Flex and more.
XML-based web-content syndication format. Syndicated RSS feeds are used
to publish frequently updated content such as news, blog entries, podcasts,
and more. Some RSS feeds include the full text, but most contain only
a portion of the document, encouraging the reader to visit the content
open source, web application development scripting language and framework
that increases the speed at which you can create typical database-driven
SaaS company that specializes in Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
software; a leader in the SaaS movement.
music tracking and analysis feature that provides you with recommendations
based on the music you listen to through the site or
on your iPod. (See also recommender systems.)
search engine marketing (SEM)—Promoting
your website to increase traffic and search results. This includes paid
search, online advertising and more.
engine optimization (SEO)—Designing
your website to maximize your findability and improve your rankings
in organic search engine results.
search engine result page (SERP)—The
page shown to a user by a search engine with a listing of web pages
matching the search query sorted by relevance.
Sullivan’s search engine news blog.
search engine marketing resource site. Includes articles, tutorials,
conferences and more.
3D virtual world social networking program developed by Linden Labs.
Users create an avatar (their online image and persona) that they use
to meet other users with similar interests, conduct business, participate
in group activities, take classes and more.
“web of meaning.” What some believe will be the next evolution
of the web in which web content can be read and understood by software
Rich Internet Application (RIA) framework developed by Microsoft; competes
with Adobe Flash and Flex.
company responsible for several blogging software applications and websites,
including Movable Type, TypePad and Vox.
most popular VoIP company. Users can place free calls to other Skype
users around the world over their Internet connection. They also offer
fee-based services that allow you to call non-Skype phone numbers. Skype
was purchased by eBay in 2005 for $2.6 billion. Its founders recently
launched Joost (an Internet TV site).
SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol)—A
protocol for exchanging XML-based information over a network. SOAP is
used as a messaging framework in web services.
act of sharing your bookmarks with others through a website such as
del.icio.us or Ma.gnolia. Users bookmark their favorites sites, articles,
blogs and more, and tag them by keyword.
media (e.g., photos, videos, music, etc.) shared online. Social media
sites, such as Digg, YouTube and Flickr, often include features for
user comments, collaborative filtering and tagging.
designed to organize users’ existing relationships and help users
establish new ones. Popular social networking sites include MySpace,
Facebook, LinkedIn, Second Life and more.
first wiki company; provides wiki services to corporations. (See also
as a Service (SaaS)—Software
that runs on a web server. It does not need to be installed on your
local computer, and companies can instantly update all users to the
latest version. Salesforce.com, Google, 37Signals and Microsoft all
have extensive SaaS offerings.
e-mail messages, blog comments and forum postings.
SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language (SPARQL)—An
RDF query language for the Semantic Web.
author- and/or user-submitted label for web content used to classify
it by subject or keyword. For example, a picture of the Statue of Liberty
posted on Flickr might be tagged with “newyorkcity,” “statueofliberty,”
“usa,” etc. Users can search for content on a site by tags.
For examples of tag usage, see Technorati and Flickr.
weighted list of content tags on a website. A tag cloud is usually in
alphabetical order, with the most popular tags often appearing in a
larger or bold font. Each tag links to a page where you’ll find
all of the content on that site that has been “tagged” (by
publishers and/or users) with that term. Tag clouds are used by many
Web 2.0 companies, including Technorati, Flickr, del.icio.us and more.
act of adding tags to content.
tagging “landscape”; the patterns and trends that are seen
in tagging and tag clouds.
popular Internet technology blog that focuses on the companies, products,
people and events of Web 2.0.
popular blog search engine that uses tagging.
company that developed Ruby on Rails (http://www.deitel.com/Resource
Centers/Programming/Ruby/tabid/715/Default.aspx) and many
SaaS applications, including Basecamp.
method for web content authors to request notification when a website
links to their content (articles, blog postings, etc.). It is a great
way for authors to track links into their sites, measure the viral effects
of their work, find related sites and more.
mobile web service that enables users to message groups of friends at
once and automatically receive their friends’ updates on a cell
phone or through a chat window.
popular distribution of the Linux operating system.
that is created by users. User-generated content is central to Web 2.0.
Internet advertising company.
VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol)—Voice
services over the Internet; used to build telephone services. The leading
VoIP company is Skype, which offers free phone service among Skype users
VoIP company. They provide broadband Internet telephone services that
can be used with a standard phone (with adapter).
Internet experience previous to Web 2.0, focusing more on static content.
Some people called it the “brochure web.”
term coined by Dale Dougherty of O’Reilly Media in 2003. It refers
to the current state of the web, which has a strong emphasis on user
participation and community. Web 2.0 sites include social networking,
wikis, blogging, social media, tagging, collaborative filtering, and
web as a platform—Instead
of viewing the operating system as the application platform and building
“Windows-based applications” or “Linux-based applications,”
developers now build “web-based applications.”
web of meaning—Another
name for the “Semantic Web.”
Web Ontology Language (OWL)—A
key Semantic Web technology, used for organizing data.
site that offers content. Advertisers place ads on web publisher sites.
to the ability to scale memory and processing power according to need,
by using web-based processing power and memory, often provided by other
companies. Amazon offers web-scale computing through web services such
as Simple Storage Service (S3) and Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2).
service provided online that can be called by another program across
desktoplike environment (such as Laszlo Webtop) for running web applications
in a web browser.
collaborative, editable document online. The best known example of a
wiki is Wikipedia, which has quickly become a leading web resource for
virtually any topic.
site offering specialized wiki communities about popular television
shows, games, literature, shopping and more.
community-generated encyclopedia using wiki technology.
wisdom of crowds—The
concept that a large diverse group of individuals that does not necessarily
include experts can provide more accurate answers than a small group
of specialists working together.
World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)—An
organization that develops web standards.
popular personal blogging site that includes community features.
(Extensible Markup Language)—A
markup language developed in 1996 by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)
that allows you to label data based on its meaning.
XML-based markup languages, such as XHTML for web content, CML for chemistry,
MathML for mathematical content and formulas, and XBRL for financial
mashup tool that enables you to aggregate and manipulate many data sources.
contextual advertising program for publishers. This is a fundamental
and popular form of monetization, particularly for Web 2.0 startup companies.
advertising program for advertisers.
Internet video sharing site that has created a huge social phenomenon.
Users upload and share videos. The company was bought by Google in 2006
for $1.65 billion.
company that provides Semantic Web knowledge management and enterprise
data integration products and services.