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Java How to Program, 6/e

© 2005
pages: 1576
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The following Java tutorial introduces the Java 2D API and demonstrates some of its powerful graphics capabilities, including shapes, strokes, fills, gradients, line styles, line joins, line end caps and general paths (which can be used to create your own two-dimensional shapes). This tutorial is intended for students and professionals who are already familiar with Java and Swing graphical user interface fundamentals. Download the examples for this tutorial here.

[Notes: This tutorial is an excerpt (Section 12.8) of Chapter 12, Graphics and Java 2D, from our best-selling textbook Java How to Program, 6/e. This tutorial may refer to other chapters or sections of the book that are not included here. When you purchase this book you also get free access to the Web-based Java Multimedia Cyber Classroom, 6/e, for six months. The Cyber Classroom includes audio descriptions of the examples in Chapters 1-14, solutions to approximately one-half of the end-of-chapter exercises, interactive true/false self-assessment questions and a searchable Web-based e-book. Permission Information: Deitel, Harvey M. and Paul J., JAVA HOW TO PROGRAM, ©2005, pp. 697-706. Electronically reproduced by permission of Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.]

Introduction to the Java 2D API

The Java 2D API provides advanced two-dimensional graphics capabilities for programmers who require detailed and complex graphical manipulations. The API includes features for processing line art, text and images in packages java.awt, java.awt.image, java.awt.color, java.awt.font, java.awt.geom, java.awt.print and java.awt.image.renderable. The capabilities of the API are far too broad to cover in this textbook. For an overview of the capabilities, see the Java 2D demo (discussed in Chapter 20 , Introduction to Java Applets) or visit In this section, we overview several Java 2D capabilities.

    Drawing with the Java 2D API is accomplished with a Graphics2D reference (package java.awt). Graphics2D is an abstract subclass of class Graphics, so it has all the graphics capabilities demonstrated earlier in this chapter. In fact, the actual object used to draw in every paintComponent method is an instance of a subclass of Graphics2D that is passed to method paintComponent and accessed via the superclass Graphics. To access Graphics2D capabilities, we must cast the Graphics reference (g) passed to paintComponent into a Graphics2D reference with a statement such as

Graphics2D g2d = ( Graphics2D ) g

The next two examples use this technique.

Lines, Rectangles, Round Rectangles, Arcs and Ellipses

The next example demonstrates several Java 2D shapes from package java.awt.geom, including Line2D.Double, Rectangle2D.Double, RoundRectangle2D.Double, Arc2D.Double and Ellipse2D.Double. Note the syntax of each class name. Each of these classes represents a shape with dimensions specified as double-precision floating-point values. There is a separate version of each represented with single-precision floating-point values (e.g., Ellipse2D.Float). In each case, Double is a static nested class of the class specified to the left of the dot (e.g., Ellipse2D). To use the static nested class, we simply qualify its name with the outer class name.

    In Fig. 12.29–Fig. 12.30, we draw Java 2D shapes and modify their drawing characteristics, such as changing line thickness, filling shapes with patterns and drawing dashed lines. These are just a few of the many capabilities provided by Java 2

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